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- What "you should aim at is that manager should work on now that we ask "uninstallation of Showa" Momoko Shirakawa
Of "“ Showa as for what you should aim at
We ask Momoko Shirakawa,
What manager should work on now
- One of the problems that you should work on for manager by revision of work-style reform-related law of April, 2019 immediately and "work-style reform" that it was. As well as problem of merely compliance, many companies begin to work on this problem from the viewpoint of securing of human resources in the present when decrease in working population accompanied with low birthrate and aging is anticipated.
However, Momoko Shirakawa of journalist who is well-informed person member of "achievement of work-style reform meeting" of the government says "superficial work-style reform", "we have a sense of crisis".
What is essential problem to hide behind in current work-style reform? How should medium and small-sized business and the manager actually work on reform? Shirakawa told with example about consciousness that manager should change, action that you should work on.
"Superficial work-style reform" destroys company. "Readiness for management" is necessary
−−As for Shirakawa, alarm bell is sounded current "work-style reform" when "it has become superficial". Specifically, what is it?
Shirakawa: The simplest example is work-style reform that just says, "return early". Unpaid overtime just increases even if we say such a thing without duties efficiency. Actually, it is said that around 1.5 times overtime work has increased at the managerial class. This is masterpiece of negative part of superficial reform that does not capture true nature.
−−Regardless of big things and small things of scale, we are asked in various companies.
Shirakawa: We may receive big blow so as to have to revise achievements downward in some cases recently as we begin attempt that lawyers demand in a group service overtime pay from. Therefore it is not good and must move facing the origin to be related in business model and the profit structure, working hours including system in direction only by saying, "return early".
−−There was the issue of long working hours symbolized by karoshi with one in the beginning of the work-style reform. What is cause that long working hours became natural in Japan?
Shirakawa: It is big cause that had the rapid economic growth period when innovation happened and "the population bonus period" when population composition acts in favor of economy and coming at the same time. For example, we were popular so as to make if maker worked for a long time in the time and made more TV. The population bonus period was over in the 1990s. There is little working population and is "population onasu period" (the times when population composition acts on minus to economy) with many fed elderly people now. Business of Showa does not work necessarily and is that it becomes at time when you must change such model and system.
In addition, we cannot miss point that passage of times goes to diversity. For example, example "that only YouTube watches as for our child" when it is to young man smaller child watching program in smartphone a lot without having TV now is not rare. For change of such a user need, it is becoming hard to do correspondence in "organization where same type is high in experience and the sense of values" which manufacturer built so far. In the new theme, experience and sense of values that organization cultivated for many years may make creation of idea difficult adversely. In other words, it may be said that we changed clearly in the times when "organization corresponding to way of working that is various to realize organization where people with diversity gathered in experience and the sense of values and that" has strength. Company must follow this change.
−−It is greatly problem of manager.
Shirakawa: It is problem of "readiness for management". True work-style reform is very severe thing "which we take company's management problem seriously and run, and manager must reform" not the spot. Specifically, the upper limit (※ large company enforces medium and small-sized business in April, 2020 from April, 2019.of overtime hour having never met by this work-style reform in Japan As a general rule, when you exceed for 360 hours a year, for 45 hours a month, it is set until 720 hours a year, and) was introduced, but must turn every business model if we cannot run on the rule.
Ahead of the times of change, manager should abandon "success experience that long working hours were realized"
−−What kind of way of thinking, recognition should manager with "readiness" have for this big change?
Shirakawa: You must change way of thinking about "human resources" in future. This is because it is "problem short of human resources" to have to cope earlier above all. At first, by coming times, before and the same technique that the working population decreases, it is not possible to find human resources at the same level. Therefore necessary one is flexible adoption of person working at long distance and people who work in a short time. We may employ excellent human resources in women who are doing child care by doing so. Need to secure work force by accepting a variety of ways of working in this way comes out to the company side.
−−After all, population problem has big impact.
Shirakawa: I was member of "the way review meeting of new convenience store" which Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry was hosting now, but business model of convenience store which should be open 24 hours was right "innovation of Showa". However, it is obvious that that has already collapsed to anyone so that we are reported in recent news. In addition, we were not able to cover remarkable rise of personnel expenses by work force lack even if we made attractive product and did marketing efforts so much. In this, "innovation of Showa" is nothing but that change is pressed for from the root of business.
−−On the other hand, some always said, "minimum wages were too cheap". What would Japanese managers get a wrong?
Shirakawa: We think that the best problem may be that nobody was thinking about time cost. In the first place Japanese labor system was not designed on the premise to "be limited as for human time". Still uniformity was sold if we made thing under the influence of the population bonus period, and there were people who worked by cheap wage without end. After all, we cannot but say, "we were insensible of sense" about "relations of people and time and money".
−−Even if productivity per time is low, speaking of time, work site of Japan is pointed out.
Shirakawa: That does not think about time cost and thinks that it is caused by the fact that there is overtime work and has worked in the situation called commonplace. It is thought that lifetime employment and system of seniority that large company held influence that. This is because it adjusted by lengthening working hours per one without adjusting by the number of people employing for increase of work load. And we got forehead which could feed family without by working together for salary in reliance on the overtime pay, and that has become standard. But there was law revision requiring limit for overtime hour of worker these days, and sense of values changes so that people with childcare and care work as force. Way covering increase of work load by overtime work does not come to be good anymore.
−−However, such a sense of values has been surviving until quite recently. You feel like being able to say that change was too slow, why will you be in such a situation?
Shirakawa: We think that success experience "that Japan won by long working hours for the rapid economic growth period of Showa" was too big. However, you must abandon success experience to begin new thing. "Learning rejection" means this by technical term. Revision of this work-style reform method and regulation with that think that there is part functioning as "shock treatment" to have manager carry out the "learning rejection". Because there is negative image when we say regulation, but may be a chance to produce change.
It is sense of speed to be sought by reform of medium and small-sized business
−−Large company is impression working on, on the other hand, about this work-style reform, is it already thought that medium and small-sized business which is existence to support Japan and the manager should do action for this change concretely how numerically?
Shirakawa: We said, "we want manager to have readiness" some time ago, but think, "it is up to motivation of manager" simply because it is right medium and small-sized business.
Important viewpoint is three in working on work-style reform.
・Mind set (consciousness reform)
In the case of medium and small-sized business, we may put into execution depending on manager about two points except expensive infrastructure maintenance immediately. As it is not big, organization may infiltrate policy to there, too.
−−Then will medium and small-sized business be that degree of difficulty corresponding to work-style reform is low?
Shirakawa: No, degree of difficulty can never say that it is low. In reality, lack of human resources of medium and small-sized business is already serious. As we should come to a deadlock on human resources adoption side if we do not make company which is easy to work immediately, it is necessary for manager of medium and small-sized business to work with "sense of speed" in three points of the said article particularly.
−−In medium and small-sized business working on reform with "sense of speed" quickly, what kind of success example will there be?
Shirakawa: We succeed in by one of Kanagawa and medium and small-sized business of a certain construction industry introducing telework thoroughly, and having stopped long working hours, gathering many human resources. As for the construction industry, image of long working hours may stay, and lack of human resources in particular is the serious industry, but there is characteristic that real workers with expertise already gather with a rush if we make even environment that is easy to act.
−−Image does not appear very much when we say telework by construction industry, would you tell in detail?
Shirakawa: Construction industry is the spot work-centered world, but there are meeting and desk work in that. It was telework of construction industry to be able to make the work into anywhere. Specifically, we prepare IT infrastructure in each spot and prepare for facilities and place where WEB meeting is possible and are to allow you to conclude documents job with PC. We get rid of need to return to company only for documents and meeting and, between spot A and spot B, each work, greatly reduce traveling time.
In addition, by using helmet which we put WEB camera, at the time of the spot work, expert worker confirms young job to be in the away spot and seems to allow you to advise. In this way, the system is such that age employee having difficult long-distance travel can share technique and knowledge effectively. Besides, we take in work clothes which can measure heart rate for heat stroke measures, and there is company which introduces technology positively, and pushes forward duties efficiency.
−−It is level to be surprised at the IT industry.
Shirakawa: It may be said, "long working hours are not avoided as house is construction", but is example that there should not be thing, and it is revealed that there is never.
−−Is Internet technology that is symbolized by teleworks that we adopt WEB camera and WEB conference system when we say "infrastructure maintenance" when we see business scene widely basic?
Shirakawa: Besides, RPA (robotic process automation) where software substitutes by routine work that people performed is effective. Major drink company has already saved 40,000 hours by RPA introduction, and next seems to aim at saving for 80,000 hours. It is fine example that we can promote efficiency of like it if we use well. We can greatly reduce time for inventory by using IC tag if it is retail business. In the field of duties such as the accounting, there is structure that expense application is reflected to direct cost as soon as we spent electronic money such as Suica.
−−Problem that can be solved by introduction of infrastructure maintenance and technology to assume that base knows that there is many well.
Shirakawa: And, after that, important one introduces groupware and shares data effectively and "we reduce documents of paper" to cuttlefish or are. Even if the outside makes leading salesman, case dropping in at company is not yet a little only to submit documents of paper. We cannot data-process joint ownership of materials when we hear the situation of company saying, "we do not advance though we introduced telework" and mostly documents of paper enter sleeve desk closely and have fallen into state that cannot work when we do not consider that.
−−When we are wrong only by having introduced technology.
Shirakawa: It is scary place that has used old technology in the times when technology itself always changes. Because ancient word-processing software is still used together and may spend time to revise error that occurred by the issue of compatibility between software….
−−It means in the times when you must complete antenna in technology to promote efficiency of their work.
Shirakawa: Of manager of medium and small-sized business when is old, it is problem to be apt to be late for introduction of IT. Or we introduce many such technology every section and duties separately and have been divided, and loss may be rather born. We think that IT human resources called manager oneself vs. "CTO" (chief technical officer) which it has knowledge of technology to deal when hard to please, and can unify plural tools by come to be necessary.
With further problem to wait for manager earlier of work-style reform
−−We asked about "work-style reform" of present continuous to here, but it comes or what kind of change thinks that it is necessary over there?
Shirakawa: Large company, medium and small-sized business thinks wave that they must get over next to work-style reform together to be "evaluation and re-design of reward". Neither on-site employee nor the management layer must come to be evaluated from now on.
−−What will it become when we say evaluation of the manager and management layer?
Shirakawa: To "manager said that is for readiness", but tell working people on the site adversely when should have "last readiness from origin of of manager who cannot change". In the present age when is short of human resources, there are plenty of work place. Therefore we think whether people should withdraw from company which cannot change. As Japanese business people are very serious, you think, "we want to reform our company", and most, I give advice, but should have choice to "leave" as means.
−−We understood well that the times of big change came.
Shirakawa: Moreover, manager thinks that it is time when you must make "concentration and choice of capital" severer. You must think about where medium and small-sized business with a few resources is concentrated from now on. Therefore we take in change of the times to manager sensitively by all means and want slogan to push forward change by "uninstallation of Showa".
Momoko Shirakawa Touko Shirakawa
Sagami Women's University guest professor, Showa Women's University synthesis education center guest professor, University of Tokyo Graduate School information science ring honorary member researcher. Via SUMITOMO Corp., Lehman brothers, publish Chuo University's professor Masahiro Yamada and the "action for marriage" "times" in 2008, to instigator of action for marriage boom. We feature the theme of life carrier, work-life balance, declining birthrate, work-style reform, diversity of woman. Lecture, a lot of living-room gigs.
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