- List of articles
- Growth of Japan needs power of, woman. "Therefore both woman and man turning" to that we ask sanura**
Growth of Japan needs power of, woman. We ask sanura**,
"Therefore both woman and man changing"
- The need that what is talked about all over the world as well as Japan updates concept and system about woman. The working population decrease accompanied with declining birthrate becomes backer, too, and social advance of woman becomes problem of urgent business among other things in Japan. One of the men of intelligence that "womanpower utilization and declining birthrate measures" are proposed as the Japanese biggest growth strategy as for sanura** which is international political scientist. While oneself experiences childbirth, child care, we perform "pivoting of way of working", and, as for Miura playing an active part in the social front line, what kind of update considers about womanpower utilization that necessary?
With reason not to advance while high value-added labor of woman is demanded
——As for Miura, "womanpower utilization and declining birthrate measures" are proposed as not only the side of social significance but also Japanese biggest economic growth strategy in the future, what is it with the reason?
Miura: Was had for Japan; when think "what is thing which can grow up?" think that is for service industry that included people and lifestyle in basically. Make which, and a person's factor is big. Then focus is woman occupying half of population. However, on the other hand, about 40% of employer except officer is irregular employment, and reality called woman has about 70% soon. It must be that it becomes the neck for growth of Japan that they are not in love by high value-added work. That comes to the conclusion in problem to just surround woman.
――It means that it is not simple problem whether there is opportunity when woman works.
Miura: Yes, as well as employment rate, we think that you must see how much added value they can bring about through work. There was The Equal Employment Opportunity Law by law revision of 1985 in Japan. (editorial department note "law about security of at opportunity when, as for the plus expression name, man and woman in the field of the employment is equal and service". Name at the time of 1972 was "the work woman welfare method", but thereafter law revision was accomplished, and name changed, and adoption of woman was performed legally equally from) that time. Image and sense of values called "which worked with" chair have just remained as it was natural to leave company when woman at the time got married and had child. We think that woman that that is current problem leads to high value-added labor not being able to set to work.
For one method to correct image and sense of values for such a womanpower, the government has woman do high added value labor using frame called public employee and thinks that there was means to let social sense of values shift. However, impact is limited as Japan is country with a little number of public employees for population. Furthermore, in the first place there was not room that educated woman, and did hookup as the bureaucratic world of Kasumigaseki was the yona rat race which "grew, and got a lead on eyes of horse".
――Neither the government nor company was able to readily defeat measure to propel high value-added labor of woman.
Miura: In addition to that, there was social culture factor, too. In that, woman uses much work force to housework and childcare; as was conscious, is that do not leave work force very much for society.
For example, we think that there is culture that woman provides all with not being taken in the home saying "article a lot of = QOL that there is of side dish of dinner is high", and realizing that by "buying side dish" and "eating out" by "handcrafting". However, then we will use good portion of womanpower for family, and what we are full of productivity of woman in society and lower is natural. In other words, in fact, woman "is doing ingredients which we purchased cheaply by labor that sprinkled labor and time of woman on high value-added table" in the home and is one.
――Though we save money, actually, we hang great work force in home that is pay "invisible cost".
Miura: Matter of side dish is one case, but it may be said that there is the real condition that much womanpower has been wasted as the whole society as value charge account is not done for much labor of woman in this way. "Extremely high quality labor that evaluates, and is not done" is poured in home, and income does not go up as naturally that does not contribute to GDP. It is the current Japan society that has continued saying, "let's make a variety of fry-ups with ingredients which we purchased cheaply" in such situation.
――For amount of money conversion of such a housework "richness in what cannot convert in capitalism-like standard, by way of speaking to be worth another", may be shown by rejection emotionally. Still should we convert value of housework?
Miura: It is for marital equality to do value charge account for housework, and this is because it does with reference materials to judge whether you purchase dishwasher in comparison with income to be provided, and you do out source to acting housework by working together. Of course there must draw a sharp line as it does not produce money and value only by housework externally.
But most of thing which "rich thing which we cannot convert into amount of money" and we think of have been converted into value already now capitalism-like in a part, and, as for the handwork, there is the cleaned side simply because it was lost. When I used Japanese traditional scrubbing brush to be able to usually buy for several hundred yen habitually, excellent thing which had, and started was enshrined on the versing paper on the scrubbing brush in a certain select shop and has seen that it was sold in several thousand yen. We think that thing such as "careful handwork" and "the beauty of business" often seems to be "rich thing which we cannot convert into amount of money", but many people do not miss washboard, and hand is not stormy, and using dishwasher is kind to environment. It is not solution that escapes from capitalism, and finish without making unnecessary effort; is that social.
What is society which then is easy to have child care where "special sense of values" called "full-time homemaker" lets "declining birthrate" accelerate?
――It was said Miura that we were due to "special sense of values that we appeared for the rapid economic growth period" "full-time homemaker" remaining in woman using great labor to home, and there not being high value-added labor for society firmly, what kind of process would the sense of values be born by?
Miura: It is "motherly faith" that sense of values called "full-time homemaker" is basic, but it is old way of thinking itself and is not bad thing. But the reason why the sense of values was strengthened is that there was background in the times, "we will have you have nation contribute to woman and lay child a lot". Self gradually sprouted and told, "job to bring up child as mother at home is fantastic" at that time for women whom social status improved. We think that this motherhood faith might be weakened adversely if job of woman raises worker for economic activation and does not bring up soldier and had to make ammunition from the beginning.
――What is it with reason why the sense of values has remained firmly in the current times?
Miura: This will be because the times have changed too rapidly. For example, American grandmother of husband was generation that the grandmother was pregnant when daughter became pregnant. It was natural to have many children as much as that. Therefore herself received only until secondary education, but when it was the times of mother of husband, women of university graduate increased, and it was not unusual to take jobs such as nurse and certified public accountant and teacher, manager. Even in the United States, change of terrible lifestyle came among only one generation. And change of lifestyle that began at that time still continued, and those days and current sense of values may have left more and more. And movement to consult with about switch of sense of values did not strongly produce the United States in Japan.
In addition, way of thinking, mother "puts effort into child care" leads to declining birthrate. Thing that Cabinet Office investigated to elucidate cause of declining birthrate, but may be out of feeling that cause of declining birthrate wants economical reason and freedom as for their hypothesis. But it is different. If "bring up child, there is ideal that want to bring up in this way" in the present child care generation, considerable for the realization; must put effort. However, surplus energy of that purpose will be because there is not so.
――Is it that ideal for child care that being all has been increasing now?
Miura: This is because it turned out that we cannot fight successfully through the rat race only by education that public school provides. When child becomes 12 years old 6 years old 3 years old than timing of the pregnancy and childbirth that is, in their saving work when we see lifestyle of woman of the circumference, and coming to evade position where there is responsibility, there are more timings of examination practically.
Sense of values called full-time homemaker lets you put effort into child care and lets declining birthrate accelerate. We think that there is such a negative spiral. And child becomes precious and we work hard more and become able to be brought up. Man of income zone that lifestyle of the full-time homemaker is not supported becomes hard to get married. In that way it means that declining birthrate accelerates more and more.
――How can "society which wants to have child care" be realized?
Miura: It will be difficult. We think that we intend to have you think, "we want to give birth" practically and cannot but take. To that end, we think that even coupon should provide with thing which is necessary for child care with the goods. It is necessary "to give person doing child care security".
――Conventionally, it has been settled, but it is that you should aim at "society which it is easy to bring up even if, as a result, we lay child" we have child premeditatedly, and to bring up.
Miura: Yes. We think that full-time homemaker of the lost all-Japanese-are-middle-class mentality does not return in the ordinary world anymore. In late years many single women have reality that, in particular, flows into center of Tokyo from central city in districts such as Osaka or Fukuoka. As such downtown area is area having low birth rate, "is apt to be thought that it is cause of declining birthrate that women of childbirth marriageable age gather in area having low birth rate. However, that is different in turn. In disfavor with society which is hard to act where security of life is not secured under the protection of man, we think that it is just said that there was there Tokyo when woman looks for town which can live independently.
――It is said that single women increase to say, but, after all, marriage and childbirth are sets, and it is often thought. If people whom we have child without being bound by marriage and environment and bring up increase, do you think that declining birthrate improves?
Miura: Japanese society did not readily permit relationship based on free will. We think that there is not means to prevent declining birthrate any place other than that where country and society support, it "is brought up which "we give birth if we can do it" in peace even if we give birth" without being bound by marriage and system. In addition, it is important to reduce social prejudice. It is an example, but should become "society which is easy to do child care" more so as to decrease if prejudice for single mother and single father decreases. As a result, children may increase. Therefore the bosses want you to support carefully. We think that it is necessary to have employee work pleasantly.
The government and company and man being able to do it for high value-added labor of woman?
――For high value-added labor of woman, what does the government think to do?
Miura: At first, it is that any political party is not the left about economic policy in the right either, and Japan is moderation gathering to want to point out. There are few conflict points, and practice of policy advances thanks to the grace, but, on the other hand, is short in backbone "what kind of philosophy does hit the policy based on?". Therefore move to promote labor of woman as Japanese Government, but, for "the coming times, let's work based on this way of thinking. To that end, it is problem that there is not consciousness to turn conventional structure. Many policies kept the industry where new comer was inhibited, and growth settled on intact and have been going to distribute only money. It is not makettorienteddo that spends money for industry not to grow up from tax and cannot expect effect as big government enough, too.
If there are any help of the government, it increases that company is established. For example, Nannie may take care of child in my company, but there is not when we say whether loss of money can count money. Therefore I make payment from own salary to Nannie or am standing now. Company should come to do various approaches if that can count loss of money in the same way as drinking party to keep human resources called woman alive.
――Under such situation, may company be established proactively?
Miura: We think that it is one hand that company introduces new system to urge approach on the government. For example, it may be good that company employs baby-sitter and Nannie. If child runs a fever, and important work is not passed through with parents either, there is that baby-sitter whom company contracted depending on company goes to meet. As there is not such a help, home environment of employee comes to a deadlock and will limit labor, and, as a result, company will not be moistened, too. Probably such a change begins in venture company and foreign company and thinks that Japanese company may be going to imitate that.
At the same time, we think that you should take in way of thinking that company abandons idea "to go to the office until from 9:00 to 17:00, and to act" and "should be able to work". Including such time and restriction of place, Japanese companies intervene in lifestyle of employee too much. For example, it is stipulated that "absence from work due to mourning is to any degree of kinship", but such a rule has nothing to do with and wants to go to cat if own cat dies if it is me. We think that company is in place that should review support of lifestyle of employee represented by vacation or company house from the beginning.
――How should male individual cope with change?
Miura: At first, man and woman changes ideal for "marriage" together and is to bring close to way of thinking assisting each other. If only man takes economical responsibility, it will be hard to get married very much. In the first place man of recent marriageable age cannot think, "we do not want you to work after having got married" for woman. However, there are many people that side still thinks, "we want there to be man for high income than oneself" in woman adversely. This is problem. That thinks that it is important "not to overdo it" if we work on consciousness reform of such a woman from male side.
――It means that it promotes consciousness reform of woman from male side. When man says, "we do not overdo it", what kind of thing will it be specifically?
Miura: For example, that is co-worker, but is that even lover prevents you from carrying responsibility on your back for reason to "be man" between woman more than required. As we will be made to maintain the expectation once when we carry such a thing on our back. It is necessary to keep flat relations in the family life after marriage.
Is familiar; is talked, but it is not unusual that, for example, man intended to help with housework and gets yelled at saying "is different in assortment of laundry", "is different in place to put detergent" when give important thing. Man has only low value-added labor in house as far as woman holds initiative in house.
However, for peace of true married life, neither male side nor woman side must make thing called low value-added side that is made to labor in home. "Place equipped with a water supply thinks, for example, that woman, machine rotation should divide range of responsibility including man" in expertise for the solution. Invest in dishwasher or washing machine with dryer afterward.
Man supports during the stage of the life when woman has child, and it is necessary to protect. We think that you should try place of difference of physical ability that "you have heavy thing" when it is not so or are born and had hard. What we push back so that partner comes out by oneself above all and help with. Is it not that that is necessary each other?
sanura** Lully Miura
1980, Kanagawa birth. As international political scientist, we become independent after experiencing lecturer at University of Tokyo policy vision research center. We act as representative of think tank wildcat research institute. As for when "war demokurashi of civilian becomes aggressive" in book "political guide for despairing person in Japan" "taste of being woman as for the meaning of loneliness." Through appearance to writing and TV show, we work on speech energetically.
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